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147-151) "Many traditional meat recipes were developed at a time when meats came from mature, fatty animals, and so were fairly tolerant of overcooking.
Tough cuts are best heated for a prolonged period at temperatures approaching the boil, usually by stewing, braising, or slow-roasting." ---On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of The Kitchen, Harold Mc Gee, completely revised and updated [Scribner: New York] 2004 (p.
A grill was convenient for flat meats, a spit for larger cuts.
Roasting, the application of direct heat at close proximity, was appropriate for a cold, moist meat such as pork because the open fire would warm and dry.
F j b, Poched egges are better than egges rosted hard or rere. 86-87) [Medieval France] "Modern physicists tell us that cooking changes the chemical characteristics of a substance.Late 19th century food scientists examined meat doneness, offering temperature/time recommendations according to type of meat, cut, and method of cooking. Meat thermometers (1930s) took the guesswork out of judging doneness. When today we ask for our steak well done, medium or rare, we are repeating a choice that the Renaissance writers revived from Hippocratic writings.Like their 17th century predecessors, early 20th cooking texts warn against rare meat. Black and blue (aka "Pittsburgh style" steak surfaces in print in the 1970s. In 1626 Pierre Duchatel noted the physical reactions to be expected from meat prepared in each of the thre ways '(1)...well-Boiled meat is suitable to the digestion. (2)...those meats that have been medium boiled or medium roasted add moderately to vigor and digestion. And its moisture manifests itself if slipperiness; chewing doesn't manage to liberate much juice. As it cooks, meat develops a firmness and resiliance that make it easier to chew. With longer cooking, the juices dry up, and resiliance give way to a dry stiffness. The meat is chewy yet soft, so that chewing compresses it instead of cutting through it.
A7, Egges newly laid, are nutritiue to eat, And rosted Reere are easie to digest. Grilled hops and steaks may be just right at the center but dry elsewhere; long-braised pot roasts and stews are often dry throughout." ---On Food and Cooking (p.